I remember, a long time ago, drinking a beer and trying to explain to a friend something that, being very simple, is quite complex to realize: field theory.
Because explaining quantum physics can be entertaining because, for a physicist, it helps you to consolidate the concepts you know and, also, when you explain with another language what is obvious for you, usually come ideas from people who do not have your point of view . That is, if you are very involved in shit, in the end you only think about what you have around you, not being able to go out and not on how to use the world around you to end that situation.
That day I commented that the universe, the space, where we lived was like a jelly. We move in a jelly with certain properties and that allows certain things. The things that gelatine allows are waves. When we hit a jelly or move an object inside it, the jelly moves by waves.
The waves are not more than manifestations of energy. That is, gelatin moves because it has energy. There are points where you move faster because you have more energy and points where you move less because you have less energy. That is, the gelatin vibrates.
The transmission of waves in gelatin is what we see. As a simile, I always put the light because we see a vibration of electromagnetic energy (at certain lengths), which is a certain type of vibration of the gelatin in which we live very specific.
But now comes the complicated and is to indicate that, how can only be energy if I see things?. Well in the simple example of gelatin and light helps us understand why and is that we all know the duality of light (wave / photon) with which, if we are a little intelligent we can realize something very funny that is that the particles are a manifestation of the energy vibrating in said gelatin.
This paragraph is very hard, but the example of light helps a lot. We can reinforce it by indicating that all the particles are no more than that, energy vibrating in the gelatin at certain speeds and therefore its wave is the particles that there are.
This explanation, since humans need to cling to something known to understand, has its disadvantages and is that gelatin (and its example) does not fully explain the field theory (obviously, does not explain it) because, as if it is valid to explain (in a certain sense) the particles do not explain the forces. Although, if we expand the theory with the machine of the imagination if we can include these effects.
And, we know that in quantum mechanics and in the standard particle model the forces (strong, weak, electronic and gravitational)… are also particles! (bosons). This indicates that the forces are also vibrations of energy in our gelatin in which we live.
It is difficult to imagine and understand that the forces are not more than a particle and that this particle can not travel faster than light, but going back to the example of gelatin, it helps a lot. As, for example, to understand that gelatin, at each point can only store some energy (yes, imagining a standard gelatin that we eat with or without flavor) and when this is exceeded, it has to “let it out”. Something that, coldly thought, helps a lot to understand particle physics.
Obviously, the gelatin in which we live is not 3-dimensional and the resonance of energies between these dimensions is what makes the energy that we “see” quantized (can only take discrete values). The topology of gelatin is something that is unknown and the properties it has have been calculated more mathematically than anything else (and I’m not just talking about field theory) for these phenomena. Some mathematical calculations have been very well proven (such as the theory of electromagnetic fields) which supports this idea, which is theory and has yet to be verified at all.
When I speak of topology I do not speak of the dimensions or the number of them but how they are formed. And this is where the biggest problem lies that each topology has its properties although, there are (mathematically) invariable functions before the topology that indicate that the properties do not vary in front of this being, what we use, a transformation of the topology exist in the universe to something more manageable by us with identical properties.
For this reason a physicist and a mathematician always work very close because mathematics is the language of physics (and the universe) and physicists put the conditions “contour” in the equations to adapt to the reality we see.
I hope this little explanation that I gave some time ago (with several beers) will help to understand or, at least to want to know more, about this fascinating topic about what we are composed of and why things happen.