Today I want to talk about the main sequence on stars. Although it sounds a little strange its name is the majority of the stars in the visible universe and is that a star of main sequence is one that is in a band or spectral type according to the diagram of Hertzsprung-Russell of which I speak to you does weather.
That is to say, they are stars of certain sizes (a group of them) that emit a certain light (wavelength) and that, therefore, they are in a band of temperatures.
In the accompanying image, the main sequence is that oblique band that crosses from top to bottom and from left to right.
Why is main sequence stars important? Well simply because they are the typical active stars that still have hydrogen to give and take. Come on, they have a hydrogen nucleus and therefore are in the “normal” life of a star, neither in formation, nor in collapse or to the point of. That is, the pressure exerted by the nucleus outwards is sufficient to prevent gravitational collapse.
In this period, the star creates more helium than anything else, but also heavy materials like oxygen, iron, carbon … this happens in different cycles of combustion in which the star passes. In these cycles, more than one material is created and called PP and CNO according to whether it is “proton versus proton” or “carbon, nitrogen and oxygen”. The time in each cycle depends on the size of the star and the temperature you have, but keep in mind that all stars go through both cycles.
As you see, the stars are “living” entities that have their periods and evolution. Knowing them, knowing them, detecting them is what makes science fun.