Today I want to talk about something fundamental to special relativity, which are groups of Lorentz.
Hendrik Lorentz was a physicist/mathematician who, based on Maxwell’s equations, could observe and treat a mathematical forms in which the results and therefore proved invariant properties.
For those who think this is shit and do not know why he was given the Nobel Prize, only indicate that it is the basis of that, when two observers traveling at different speeds (relativistic itself), thanks to the, physical magnitudes have a relationship, that is, knowing as a physical system behaves for an observer can be removed as it behaves the other.
It is the base because certain things, such as the speed of light is constant regardless relativistic observer that “contemplated”. That is, the speed of light is the same go for or against the “ray of light” (something that previously was thought that was not true). Ie (2), if you go for the light beam, light travels at a speed (c) and thought that if you were going in the opposite direction, the speed of light would be higher (from the point of view of the observer It walks away), but thanks to Lorentz, was that the speed is constant.
Lorentz transformations (or the Lorentz group) are supported Lorentz factor. The Lorentz factor is simply the calculation time dilation according to the observer through the speed of light. A “number” famous for its expansion equation and, as I said, is the basis of relativity.
Obviously, the Lorentz transformations are tensors, ie, multidimensional arrays that are applied or used in calculations tensioners to change the reference systems and thus have the new values of physical quantities that we want to “see”. That is, it is algebra.
There are different, as you want to temporarily or spatially, ie the matrices vary depending on whether the change you want to do is temporary (for observers) or spatially. Space, spatial transformations, also called Galileo group because this calculation mathematically in the standard three-dimensional space, although of larger because it includes the time.
A physic without mathematics is nobody.