I admit that lately, in my “Monologues physics” I is doing the pot explaining rather more complex and liosas what may interest you to things, so I’ll try to join certain topics that I let loose in those talks.
Today: String Theory for Dummies.
Everyone has heard of string theory, either on TV or because some magic shaman has left you a card in the mailbox indicating that it is able to cure everything (from love to diabetes) by string theory or form quantum and remote (depending on the day), but no one has explained, is simply that string theory.
Well, it’s simple. String theory is based on quantum physics, that is, to see life from the point of view of the dwarf. Like any theory is an attempt to explain singularities (you know calculations that give impossibilities) of a “superior physical” in this case of quantum physics. And is that distances very very very very (repeat this many times) very small quantum physics fails as a bitch to explain phenomena forces and because the equations simply … go down.
A very small distances I mean Planck size, ie 1.63*10^-35 meters, osea 0.0 (35 zeros) 1 meter. At these distances, the forces involved, obtained densities are so enormous that quantum physics does not know where to catch them. To give you an idea are distances and energy densities when the big bang.
So, how to solve these singularities ?. Simple, in 1970 some gentlemen called Scherk and Schwarz began to think that, in quantum physics everything behaves as waves having equations describing these waves. Simple. So if any particle can “paint” through wave equations, generated such waves?.
There are many things that generate waves from a “lake” that we throw a stone to a rope … !. A string vibrates when generates waves, then why not going to be the fabric of the universe created by strings ?. And eh voila, so string theory was created.
In string theory we are told that the space-time of the universe (this) framework is based on a series of strings (and how are you intertwine and that gives us other theories) that, when vibrating created not only matter but the forces … including the “big one force that governs everything,” gravity.
And now comes the beautiful at the same failing. As matter, energy and forces across as vibrating strings are explained string theory is very complicated as itself “explains everything” (mathematically speaking) and many call it the “unification theory” Einstein sought both.
Also, as a problem, as explained by “all” the equations are so complicated and give many solutions that are practically uncomputable. That is, the solutions are many that are practically unsolvable.
And now a couple of funny notes extras in case some day, telling you this, I want to give the mucus.
If all are strings, we do not see ?. Because they are very small, they are the size of Planck and although now there is no technology to see that size of all, the mere fact that the observer intervenes the varied vibration (remember what Schrödinger’s cat and the principle of indeterminacy Heisenberg).
And for magufos to ensure that there are 4 dimensions (the magician who I told you at the beginning) to generate all forces (weak interaction, strong, gravity, electrodynamics …) strings should not vibrate in the 3 dimensions we observe but they need 9 dimensions. And why we do not see other dimensions and only see three? Because the vector of these dimensions is so so so small (remember, Planck) … well, see above.
The next day maybe, if I have time, I talk about what my gets very palote me, the theory of quantum gravity loop (of which I am a believer) or lower the piston and tell you about Coriolis not.