Table_of_Astronomy,_Cyclopaedia,_Volume_1,_p_164

From hypothesis to theory and then to law

The other day I was giving the plate with the hypothesis censorship Penrose, very cool it and taking it for granted that you knew the differences between echelons things take.

I’ve noticed that you do not know the difference between hypothesis, theory and law and, moreover, many people confuse them.

It’s simple, a hypothesis in science, it is an assumption that explains some natural phenomena either through some formulas that correspond to some observable data.

However a hypothesis becomes theory when the scientific community is beginning to go through the stone. That is, when the scientific community checks calculations for such observable phenomenon. In this process, the calculations usually have enough adjustments so that really fits the reality or realities presented. This is the time when you have to pass the test of scientific method.

The scientific method is simply a process of reasoning that is considered valid to prove a fact. It is a recurring process in which it is observed, analyzed, conclusions are drawn and the hypothesis (which remember becomes theory) it fits. The biggest “fact” of the scientific method is reproducibility, ie, that what you want to show it can be played by anyone anywhere giving the same results.

After the time is adjusted her theory and nuts, this theory becomes law. A law has the concept of reproducible “absolute truth” which gives a known solution.

The normal way of hypothesis theory usually takes a few years, the transition from theory to law, we are many more. It is not a process that happens in the overnight.

Let’s take an example of everything to make it more easily understood.

Newton’s laws, the three known laws, which themselves are only extreme cases of certain quantum theories (and here I will not extend) were published in the Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Edmund Halley, who publish this work created by Isaac Newton in the nose to give Robert Hooke saying he had done and explained through calculations the movement of the planets in the sky (false).

Once the book, it became hypotheses and was in that state over a century despite Newton’s calculations were impeccable published. This time step in what was not only that the calculations were correct but it was found that, in principle, the results that gave were totally correct and correspond with reality. In fact, in 1870 (about 200 years later) still it remained in if theory since the problem was discovered with the orbit of Mercury but, by that time already considered by many physicists law. Hence it is considered that there was another planet.

However, the theory of relativity (general or specific) remains theory although in 1905 as there are phenomena that Einstein’s equations (and their friends, remember that alone did not, in fact there is a Spanish-a engineer who helped you) fail to specify, paradoxes, such as black holes.

As I said, the theories are in a process of retro food in which the equations by way of explaining where “fail” lunging complementary to these (eg quantum theory of loops is a mixture) as theories are improved to explain the exceptions of the first.

And here it is where I wanted to get to tell a funny thing. Some laws are merely facts extreme ends of other theories or data, which, as previously said would have to downgrade law theory but, laws, that model remain laws.

An example is the quantum theory based on waves of the elements that make up matter (Planck size for friends) where one end is Newton’s laws because the forces affecting quantum are negligible to “natural size “what makes Newton’s laws are an extreme case of quantum mechanics. A physical way, Planck’s constant these sizes is 0 (frequency of vibration) and therefore, its terms are zero and are negligible. And so it is with the general theory of relativity Einstein since in Newton’s laws was considered the speed of infinite propagation (let the forces act instantly) while with Einstein’s theories are known to speed “maximum “it is the propagation speed of light. Hence, if you are interested, that gravitational waves exist and go at that speed, as much because of gravity has spread like wave, which comes from quantum mechanics.

What’s hot all this related ?. Perhaps that is why Einstein spent his last years of life seeking unification theory … that stuff.

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